The most common Periodontal or gum diseases include Gingivitis and Periodontitis which though have no symptoms, can damage the bone and tooth. The periodontal disease become chronic as the bacterial infection affects the bone structure and the gums around the tooth.
Periodontal disease may directly affect just one tooth or more and starts when there is a constant accumulation of plaque. Over time, the plaque builds up especially when there is no regular brushing and flossing. The initial few symptoms that you may note is soft gums that tend to bleed easily during brushing, slight inflammation and grayish outline of the teeth where it joins the gum line.
The first stage of the gum disease is known as Gingivitis. It is the mildest form of periodontal diseases and doesn’t have any discomfort. While gingivitis is caused by poor oral health, it is reversible and can be remedied with professional treatment and oral care. It is best to seek treatment as early as possible.
The other dental disorder, Periodontitis is the next stage of gingivitis. As the plaque spreads and grows, just below the gum line, the bacterial infestations release chemicals that irritate the gums, leading to inflammation. The chemicals kick-start an auto response of inflammation and the destruction of bone and tissues starts.
Spaces appear between the gums and the teeth which then become infected. As the oral disease progresses, the gaps increase and more of the tissue and bone are destroyed. However, the most alarming factor needs to be considered that there are virtually no or extremely mild symptoms and thus, damage is higher as you tend to never reflect the extent of damage that is done. As it progresses, the teeth become loose and fall of on their own or require extraction.
Periodontitis has different forms which include:
Chronic Periodontitis It results in swelling in the teeth tissues, progressive attachments of the gum and results in bone loss. This is the most common stage of Periodontitis and is marked by recession of the gums and pocket formations. It is mostly seen in adults and can affect any age. Although loss of the bone and structure is slow, teeth loss happens over time.
Aggressive peritonitis: It happens in individuals that are usually healthy but the key aspects to consider in this disease include rapid attachment loss, bone destruction and receding gums.
Systematic diseases: It is one of the forms of Periodontitis and often starts at a young age. Other health conditions such as diabetes, respiratory diseases and heart disease are the main cause of this form of Periodontitis.
Necrotizing periodontal disease This infection is characterized by necrosis of the periodontal ligament, gingivitis and alveolar bone. Individuals with malnutrition, HIV and immunosuppression have lesions that are commonly observed
However in case of loss of tooth, dental implants are the only solution. The dental treatments if taken at the right time can ensure that the decay and infections are treated. If you have bleeding gums or tooth is loose, it is time to seek an appointment with the dentist.