How And When To Use Por, Para and Porque in Spanish

Some beginner students (and advanced) usually have some problems with when they should use POR, PARA or PORQUE and it can be one of the most frustrating topics to learn in all of Spanish. In this lesson we are going to review some rules to recognize when we should use one or another.

We use POR when we want to speak about the reason behind something. In this case you have to use a noun after POR.

POR + Noun: “Me gusta Buenos Aires por el clima.” (I like Buenos Aires because of the weather.)

“Como pollo por las proteínas que tiene.” (I eat chicken because it has protein.)

In Spanish you should use PARA when you are speaking about the objective of an action or the objective of an object. In this case you will use the verb in the infinitive form. PARA + Infinitive Verb: “Ahorro dinero para viajar a otro pais”. (I save money to travel to another country.)/ “El lapiz sirve para escribir.” (The pencil is used to write.).

Finally, we use Porque when you are speaking about the reason of something, but instead of using just the infinitive of the verb, we use the conjugation of the verb.

PORQUE + Conjugated Verb: “Voy a comprarme ropa nueva porque quiero estar elegante esta noche”.

(I am going to buy new clothes because I want to be elegant tonight.)

So, when someone asks you: “Por que estudias espanol?”

(Why do you study Spanish?), you can answer in different ways:

Por mi trabajo. (Because of my job.)

Por el crecimiento del mercado latino. (Because of the growth of the Latin market.)

Para poder comunicarme con personas que hablan espanol. (To be able to communicate with people who speak Spanish.)

Para viajar por Sudamerica. (For travelling around South America.)

Porque me gusta. (Because I like it.)

Porque quiero conseguir un trabajo mejor. (Because I want to find a better job.)

This little lesson doesn’t cover all aspects of when to use POR, PARA and PORQUE, but it should give you a good start at understanding some important differences of when they are used. Be on the lookout for more lessons about POR, PARA Y PORQUE in the future.

I will end this lesson by mentioning a couple of learning Spanish tools that you can use to increase your knowledge about this topic. The Practice Makes Perfect books are among the best for learning Spanish. There are currently about a dozen books in the Practice Makes Perfect series, covering various topic from vocabulary to grammar. Another one that I have recommended to my students is the Learning Spanish Like Crazy audio course which teaches informal or familiar Spanish, but not slang.

Source by Anna Rivera

A Deconstructive Approach to the "Mirror" by Sylvia Plath

The two strategies used here in deconstruction of the text are firstly deconstructing the ideology and secondly revealing the undecidability of the text. The first step in ideology deconstruction of a literary text is a New Critical reading of it in order to distinguish the tension of the text through finding its binary oppositions. The next step shall be finding the privileged member of the pair that leads to finding the ideology (or ideologies) of the text. Then this priority of one part against another part of the pair should be deconstructed that results in deconstruction of the text itself. The second strategy that is revelation of the undecidability of the text is through finding an interpretation of the text, discussing how this interpretation conflicts with another understanding of the text and how this results in a new perceptiont. Let’s start with the first strategy.

The following binary oppositions can be found in the “Mirror”: Exact vs. inexact; Having no Preconceptions vs. having preconceptions; Unmisted by judgment vs. misted by judgment; Kind vs. cruel; Truthful vs. untruthful; Godliness vs. earthliness; Honest vs. liar; Faithful vs. unfaithful; Important vs. unimportant.

These binary oppositions reveal a main pair that can be the main theme of the poem as well, that is Truth vs. dishonesty. In the first stanza of the poem that is a monologue by the mirror commenting on its own qualities, most of these binaries reveal themselves. The poem starts with mirror claiming that it is fair, just and free from any preconceptions. It also stresses on its own truthfulness, honesty and faithfulness. All these claims seem to be the privileged members of the pair, since firstly the poem is through the point of view of the mirror, who claims to have all these qualities and we accept as a licensed narrator.

Secondly it seems that in most of the cultures mirror has a positive connotation, symbolizing truth and honesty and the superiority of truth over lie is acknowledged universally; furthermore the assertion of being a God ensures the priority of other qualities of the mirror in the other opposed pairs mentioned above. Consequently it can be said that all the qualities of the mirror are collectively advantaged and supreme, so constitute the privileged ingredients of the binary opposed terms.

Therefore the theme of the poem can be stated as the opposition between truth and dishonesty or reality and negation of reality. To be precise the poem criticizes submission to dishonesty and flattery in opposition to truth and reality. This dominant ideology of the poem can be supported by the evidences we can find when studying the text through the New Critical approach. On the one hand, the mirror that is a licensed narrator for us maintains that it is not affected by any kind of feelings in its reflections: “unmisted by love or dislike” (line 3) and that what it reflects is not through cruelty, it is only through truthfulness. This shows that the mirror is defending its true and unaffected reflections against the woman that appears in the second stanza of the poem, who is under the influence of the liars and is accusing the mirror of being unkind, dishonest and unfaithful.

This can be understood both in literal meaning ( the woman does not like her appearance but the mirror is not cruel in its reflection and is just depicting the reality so it is the woman who is not submitting to reality and faces the flatterers) and connotative meaning (the mirror is the symbol of those who reveal the truth though it might be bitter and dark, and the woman symbolizes those who are not able to accept the reality and accuse such honest people as cruel and rather move towards the liars for comfort). On the other hand, the poem reveals a woman who is not satisfied with the reality she finds in the mirror and “rewards me (the mirror) with tears and an agitation of hands” (line 14). The attitude of the woman shows her inferior qualities in comparison to the mirror’s highness; the mirror is honest and Godly but the woman is affected by the flatterers and shows earthliness. Subsequently the poem reveals the tension existing between Truth and dishonesty which is the main theme of the poem as well.

However there are also some points in the poem that reverse the priority of these privileged items of the binary opposites.

First of all as mentioned earlier the supremacy of truth vs. dishonesty is acknowledged, however in this case the “faithful” revelation of the mirror has a very bad effect on the woman; she continuously feels “agitated” and desperate; She has not the ability to accept the reality as it is, and the revelation of the reality is so tragic to her. As a result there comes up a doubt about the privilegedness of reality over dishonesty. It seems that honesty that is considered a virtue is gaining negative dimensions in the “Mirror”; therefore indeterminacy is aroused: is it better to reveal the truth and cause such disastrous effects on an individual or is it better to distort the reality and conceal it or at least reveal it in a milder way?

It seems that in case the truth (either lack of beauty or reality) was revealed more mildly rather than “faithfully” it would have had better ends; maybe the lady would have been able to recover the truth in a gradual process later on, so could have been able to come along with it.

Furthermore, the candle or the moon accused by the mirror as “liars” in the first stanza are not necessarily liars, because they do not disclose the reality but they rather make it softer and easier to accept for the lady; if this reality is truth, they show it in a way that the is easier for the woman to accept and if this reality is beauty they help her look more beautiful, and consequently give her a better impression but in fact they do not lie her. So it seems the text itself deconstructs the supremacy of truth vs. dishonesty by discovering a new virtue that seems to be prior to the virtue of honesty, that is saving an individual from absolute despair by revealing her a calm version of reality (or even lying as the mirror calls it). In better words the text deconstructs itself through questioning the validity of moral standards in different contexts.

The next step in deconstruction of a text is to reveal the conflicting interpretations existing in the text. One interpretation of the text shall be that of unaffectedness of mirror by any judgments and feelings and merely reflecting everything honestly and faithfully. The mirror claims:

“I am silver and exact. I have no preconceptions.

Whatever I see I swallow immediately

Just as it is, unmisted by love and dislike.

I am not cruel, only truthful-

The eye of a little god, four-cornered.” (my italics) (line 1-5)

The italics in the following excerpt of the poem show what the mirror maintains to be: exact and free from affectedness; as just as a God. However the next stanza of the poem reveals the mirror judging the candle and the moon, and the woman. According to the mirror the candle and the moon are “liars”. The mirror assigns them an attribute that has a negative tone. In other words the mirror is criticizing the candle and the moon opposed to itself that is “faithful”. The mirror is also criticizing the lady as well due to her facing the liars which again shows, its tone is not free from judgment and is reprimanding the woman. Also by saying that she is searching its “reaches” it is assigning an attribute to itself that does not seem to be free from affectedness.

Furthermore at the end of the poem the mirror calls the woman a “terrible fish” that again has a negative connotation and show the mirror is not solely reflecting the lady but commenting on her. Also the mirror says that the woman “rewards” it with agitation of hands that shows the mirror does not have that Godly attributes it assumes to have; It expects a reward from the lady that it does not acquire, so the mirror can not be as just as “eye of a little God; four cornered” because it does not merely see things and reflect them exactly but it comments on what it sees and also has expectations to be rewarded for its judgments.

These two conflicting interpretations of the text can lead to a new interpretation of it that is, it is not merely the woman who needs the mirror and feels that the mirror is “important to her” (line 15) but it is also the mirror that takes its meaning from the woman. So it can be said none of them is prior to the other one but that they take their meanings through interaction with each other; the woman is dependent upon the judgments of the mirror and the mirror is reliant upon the continuous visits of the lady. These three interpretations reveal how the text is deconstructing itself through continuous introduction of conflicting interpretations of the text, that each leads to other conflicting understandings of the poem.

Another interpretation of the text shall be that of a woman, who from the first stanza of the text we expect to be someone who is deceiving herself. In the first stanza the mirror is all through justifying its “faithful” and unaffected reflection and saying that it is not “cruel” or unjust; this brings the expectation that some one has accused the mirror of being cruel and affected, that in the next stanza is revealed to be the woman; so we come to an understanding that the woman does not want a true reflection of herself (or a true reflection of reality), but she wants something to satisfy herself, as a result is escaping from her reflection towards the candle and the moon. However the text makes a conflicting claim as well, describing the woman as “searching my (mirror’s) reaches for what she really is” (my italics) (lined 11), that confirms the woman wants to know her self as she really is (or she wants to discover the reality as it really is).

This new claim of the text conflicts with the previous understanding of the poem that revealed the woman escaping from reality. Merging these two interpretations again a new interpretation of the poem shall come up: that of the woman entrapped in a dilemma, that of knowing her true self but being unable to confront her own right image and consequently moving towards the candle and the moon as a refuge. In other words she is aware of her real image (or reality) but wants to escape that picture so moves towards the candle and the moon. These nonstop emerging interpretations of the text again shall depict the deconstructive forces of the text itself.

The poem “Mirror” deconstructs its ideology of dominance of truth over dishonesty by questioning the value of honesty itself in the context. Also the supremacy of the mirror over the lady is both confirmed and deconstructed by the poem itself.

These deconstructing forces in the text do not mean that we are not able to make sense of the text or that we shall never be able to interact with it; On the other hand this reveals the fact that we, as readers, as well as the text itself are restricted within the barriers of language and consequently in each new reading of the text might come up with new answers that might be in contrast with the previous readings of the same text.

Source by Farzaneh Bolourieh

Health Club Management Software To Run Your Gym Efficiently

The precondition for achieving success in every business is excellent service. This holds true for health clubs as well. When you own a club, your main aim should be to provide the best services to your members. This is possible only when you are able to manage your time effectively. As the number of members increase, you will find it extremely difficult to take care of different things like security, member tracking, etc. To make things easier, it is best if you use health club management software. This will make your work really easy and you can concentrate on ways to improve your business. If you want to know about the benefits that you can get from such application, you can have a look at this article.

Controlling the Right of Entry

The software will automatically control the right of entry of the members based on their membership time. If it expires, they will not be given access to your gym. This program also helps to send reminders to clients about their outstanding payments and due dates. The working hours and the attendance of the staff can also be tracked using this feature.

Managing Clients

One of the most important features is the management of clients. You can keep a record of their attendance, asses their fitness, communicate with customers and keep track about them. You can also fix the working schedule of your members as per your and their convenience. If any client upgrades from one session to another, you can record it using health club management software. In case he/she transfers from one location of your gym to any other location, that can also be tracked with this application.

Taking Care of Billing

This is one of the most daunting tasks. Managing accounts is not easy unless you use any software application. Generating bills, tracking commission of your employees, diverging payment modes, finding the deposits that have been made in the bank and many other payment related issues are some of the functions that can be performed easily using this program.

Generating Reports

When you use such computer applications, you can easily generate different kinds of reports which in turn will help you to execute different tasks required for effective club management. Some of the reports that can be created include staff attendance report, member regularity reports, reports of market, conversion and sales analysis and many others. If you use software, you will be able to get these data at the perfect time. You can then give your attention on the areas which are weak and improve the quality of your services even more.

Fixing Appointments

When you have everything meticulously planned out, you can easily start your work. With this virtual tool, you can fix appointments for your clients; plan out working hours of your employees, manage status of the appointments, keep a record of returning customers and loads of other work. As per the scheduled time, you can send out reminder emails or text messages automatically using the software.

So make use of these features of health club management software and improve your fitness business with quality service.

Source by Charles H Hayden

How to Know If a Woman’s Attracted: The 5 Signals

Maybe she’s that waitress at the local café. Or maybe she’s a coworker or classmate or even the friend you’ve always secretly had a crush on. Regardless who she is, if you like her, then you want to know if the feeling’s mutual.

Lucky for you, all women give off signals when they’re attracted. Most guys never pick up on these signals. If you don’t know what you’re looking for, you could easily overlook these secret signals, as well. And you probably already have. You have probably let countless women slip through your fingers in the past because you failed to see the signals.

But you’re never going to make that mistake again. By learning the 5 most common-but least understood-signals of female attraction, you are prepared to get the girl. Just look for 1 of these 5 signals, and then make your move. It’s as simple as that!

1.) She says your name a lot in conversation

If you find a woman saying your name in conversation, there’s a good possibility she has feelings for you. When someone has feelings for another person, the sound of that person’s name gives them a little emotional rush. (Just think of children in the schoolyard writing their crush’s name in their notebooks!) While adults don’t skip around the playground and chant their crush’s name, they do unconsciously say it whenever they can. So if she says your name a lot, there’s a good chance she’s attracted to you.

2.) She fidgets with her hair

When a woman plays with her hair, it often means she’s turned on. It’s a grooming reflex: primate females groom themselves for males before mating. (If you want proof, just go to your local zoo!) Thus, if you catch a woman stroking her hair as she talks to you, it means you’re probably arousing her interests.

3.) She breaks eye contact first

Poets say the eyes are the windows to the soul. Well, her eyes are also a window into her feelings. It’s a well known fact that eye contact signifies confidence. And confidence is nothing more than comfort in one’s status. So, for example, if you were training some new entry level employees at your job, then you’d probably feel very confident in holding strong eye with all of them. If, however, you were having a business with your boss’ boss, then you probably wouldn’t feel as comfortable maintaining strong eye contact (since your boss’ boss has higher status). Likewise, if you notice a woman continually breaking eye contact first, she’s probably nervous with attraction for you.

4.) She gets carried away with emotion sometimes around you

A major misconception most guys have of women is that they need to “like” you to feel attraction. Just think of all the bad boys who do amazing with women! Now, you don’t need to become a “bad boy” just to attract women; however, you shouldn’t be discouraged is a woman isn’t always in a peachy mood around you. In fact, it’s better if she’s not! A woman would never waste her emotions on a guy she didn’t like. So if she sometimes gets frustrated with you or even angry at you, it’s a good thing.

5.) She speaks in the future tense about you

Here’s a very subtle-but very powerful-attraction signal that women give off. If a woman’s interested in you, she’ll make comments about seeing you in the future. It’s important to note that none of these signals will be overt; instead, they’ll be little offhanded comments like, “Are you going to x, y, z event next week?” If a woman is asking such questions, it’s a telltale sign that you’re on her mind.

Source by Jay Roberts Jr.

How To Read an Insurance Policy

If the word insurance makes people's eyes glaze over, the thought of reading an insurance policy puts them into a catatonic state. Just as understanding the basics of insurance is not difficult, neither is reading an insurance policy.

First of all, insurance policies nationwide bid to be complied of standard boilerplate language – this is to keep apples with apples and oranges with oranges through all insurance companies and all types of insurance. This boilerplate language also pretty much steers away from typical "legalese" so all words within the policies is plain and simple. Boilerplate forms does not mean that all policies are the same – they are not – but like coverages, etc., are explained in the same way so if you can read one policy, you can reasonably read another.

The first place you should start is with the Declaration Page , commonly referred to as the " Dec Page ". In fact, if you do not get any further than this, this part of your policy is very important for you to be familiar with for all the reasons. What is the "Dec" page? The Dec Page is a summary of what your policy is providing for you and includes your policy number, the specific named insured, the effective and expiration date of the policy, what is being covered, how much it is being covered for, what it is costing you in total and per individual coverage, your agent's name and contact information and will show any loss payee (lien-holder) if applicable. If this is an automobile policy, the Dec page will also list the vehicles and drivers being covered. In short, the Declarations Page is a wealth of information that you should give some study to until you feel comfortable with it. This accomplishment alone will make you feel more enlightened in regards to what your insurance policy is all about.

The next step is to look at every heading in the policy, one by one. You will see things like Agreement, Definitions, specified Coverages, Insuring Agreement on the specified Coverage, Exclusions, Limit of Liability, Out of State Coverage, Other Insurance, etc. These are not scary words, right? Two very important sections are Definitions and Exclusions – found in various places in the policy and if you do not go over any others, you need to read these. Definitions will tell you who is considered an insured, etc., and the information listed will remove assumptions from your thinking and clarify what is what. Exclusions are assumption busters, as well. It is not written in Greek and you really need to know what exclusions apply to your policy. Ignorance is not bliss when you have a claim!

Too often, too many of us buy insurance for the lowest premium. Let's use an auto policy as an example. People buy what is mandatory by the state (and by the bank, if the vehicle is financed) and look only at the premium. With the cost as the only focus, these people have no clue what their policy does cover. Then they have a loss that is not covered because they did not elect to take the particular coverage that would apply and they are angry.

The solution to this frustration is to READ YOUR POLICY. Know what covers you have elected and what they are for; know the exclusions under your policy; know your responsibilities to the company in the event of a loss. Failure to know these things will most assuredly result in disappointment and unnecessary frustration in the event of a claim.

Source by Finley Jones Keller

Evaluating Managed VPS Hosting

A virtual private server, or VPS, is leasing space and resources from a physical server to suit your web design or web programming needs. Leasing out space on a physical server to others is a cost effective way of opening the online community to those who are not independently wealthy. Owning a physical server is a large investment in both time and resources. These pieces of hardware cost thousands of dollars and require regular maintenance to ensure their proper functioning. Typically, the resources needed to own a private web server are beyond what many people can or will pay for the luxury of operating their own.

A better option is leasing or buying a virtual private server. This entails contacting a host, typically the owner of the physical server. Leasing a virtual space from them allows you to have access to a virtual machine. For all intents and purposes, this virtual machine functions identically to a physical server. You are given a range of tools and options that lets you interact with this digital construct. In this way you have access to the features of a server without having to maintain the hardware.

Furthermore, leasing server space works very much like renting an apartment. If something goes wrong you have the superintendent to call. A managing host for a virtual private server acts as this superintendent. However, this is not always the rule. Because you own this virtual server, you may be responsible for the complete upkeep of it. Nevertheless, should there be a problem with the main hardware server, some sort of onsite power failure of crash, technical support is usually forthcoming.

A further advantage to using a virtual private server is that you are isolated and compartmentalized away from other users. It is common that the space of a physical server is leased out to dozens or more other parties. Some servers offer shared hosting or free hosting. This is where all the other lessees share a common pool of resources. Such sharing can often hamper performance should you have high requirements.

One final caveat for a hosted web service is that although you have full control over your data and can interface with your virtual server you are not in full control. The host typically has control over each virtual private server. This is done to ensure consistent quality and prevent potential problems from arising should a user create configuration issues through unusual preferences or if the user is not technically savvy. Still, renting space via a virtual private server through a hosted web service is still a great way to be digitally active with only a fraction of the cost.

Source by Nova Johanson

The Collapse of Enron: Managerial Aspects

Executive summary

Its revenues made up US $139($184) billion, assets equaled $62($82) billion, and the number of employees reached more than 30,000 people in 20 countries around the world.

While Enron Corporation was so highly praised by the outside observers, internally it had highly decentralized financial control and decision-making structure, which made it practically impossible to get coherent and clear view on corporations’ activities and operations. Of course, the problem was not exclusively due to poor managerial performance, all the departments of the corporation were involved in the ruining corporate ethical values and principles, but executives and managers bear primary responsibility for the absence of corporate culture, clear accountability and transparence of the company. If operations management worked properly, in its full force, and if it was given possibility to work in such a way, there could be a chance of escaping the tragedy.

Enron Corp brief history

Enron Corporation was one of the largest global energy, services and commodities company. Before it filed bankruptcy under chapter 11, it sold natural gas and electricity, delivered energy and other commodities such as bandwidth internet connection, and provided risk management and financial services to the clients around the world.

Enron was based in Houston, Texas, and was founded in July 1985 (though company with Enron name emerged still in 1930 (Swatz, Watkins, 2003)) by the merger of InterNorth of Omaha in Nebraska, and Houston Natural Gas. Enron Company quickly developed from merely delivering energy to brokering energy futures contracts on deregulated energy markets. In 1994, the company started to sell electricity, and in 1995, it entered European energy market. By the middle 2001, Enron employed about 30,000 people globally (McLEan, Elkind,2003).

Questionable accounting methods and techniques provided Enron with possibility to be listed as seventh largest United States company and was expected to dominate the market which the company virtually invented in the communications, weather and power securities (Bryce, 2002). But instead the corporation became the largest corporate failure in the global history and an example of well-planned and institutionalized corporate fraud. Enron became wealthy due to its pioneering marketing and promotion of power and communications bandwidth services and risk management derivatives, including such innovative and exotic items as weather derivatives.

In 1999, Enron launched an initiative of buying and selling access to high-speed Internet bandwidth, and also Enron Online was launched as a Web-based trading site, making Enron e-commerce company. In 2000, the reported revenues of the company made $101 billion. It had stakes in almost 30,000 miles of gas pipelines, either owned or accessed 15,000 miles of fiber-optic network and had stakes in global operations on generating electricity (Thomas, 2002).

In the result, for five years in a row, from 1996 to 2000, Enron was named “America’s most innovative Company” by Fortune magazine, and headed the list of Fortune’s “100 best companies to Work for in America” in 2000. Enron reputation was undermined by rumors on bribery and political pressure with the objective of securing contacts in South and Central America, Philippines and Africa. The Enron was blamed to use its connections with Clinton and Bush administrations to express pressure in their contracts. The events were followed by a series of scandals involving irregular accounting methods bordering on fraud which involved Enron and Arthur Andersen accounting firm and led Enron on the verge of undergoing the largest bankruptcy in economic history in November 2001 (Emshwiller, Smith, 2001).

Since Enron was always considered a blue chip stock, the bankruptcy was a disastrous and unprecedented event in the global financial world. Enron’s downfall was definite when it was found out that a considerable share of its profits resulted from deals with so-called special-purpose entities, limited partnership under control of Enron. It resulted in the possibility of not reporting many of the company’s losses in its financial statements. The final plan of Enron’s bankruptcy included creation of three new businesses which would be spun off the company.

The reorganization process started in 2003 with the creation of three companies – CrossCountry Energy, Prisma Energy International, and Portland General Electric. CrossCountry Energy was sold to CCE Holdings L.L.C., with the money to be used for the repayment of the debts, while Prisma Energy International and Portland General Electric should emerge as independent companies descendant of Enron (Swatz, 2003).

Operations management scope of functions

To understand the reasons of this bankruptcy and the level of managerial implication in the quality performance of the company, particularly that of operations management, it is necessary to outline the main functions of operations management and impact it should have of functioning of the organization.

The principal task of operations management is effective transformation of inputs into “desired outputs” of the company (Shafer, 1997). The outputs are traditionally understood in manufacturing and profit-making context within the organizations. But recently it has been recognized that operations management is a discipline which is not limited with such narrow functions; it can be deployed in practically any area where the organization aims at achieving its objectives (Barnett, 1996). For instance, non-profit or public sectors have to learn to optimize their internal operations and processes in the situation of limited resources; service companies come to conclusion that by reappraising their delivery process they can revolutionize and significantly improve their approach to manufacturing companies and their marketplace. Robin Wood (2001) gives the example of such operations management implication in Daewoo company, which understood that it can specialize and differentiate its product by adding definite bundle of benefits to its product which includes additional supporting services. Operations sector is the heart of these changes that are made by leading companies to improve their performance and increase customer base.

The survival of commercial company depends on ability of the organization to focus and shape its operational resources to meet the expectations of its stakeholders: customers, employees and shareholders, expressed in organizational strategy (Russel, 1995) . Irrespective of economic sectors the company operates in, the ability of operations management of this company to fulfill those above-mentioned tasks depends on their understanding that it is necessary to make trade-offs. They cannot avoid the situation of working under constraints and have to understand their capabilities and constraints to provide significant inputs into strategic decision-making process involving further resources of the organization.

Operations managers in the organizations are not empowered to make strategic decisions, but they play important role in shaping the organization’s strategy and contribute to the strategic thinking ( Pasternack, Viscio, 1998). Operations managers should be able to translate strategic aims and objectives into clear operational objectives and actions and to implement, design and improve the products of the company themselves and the processes of their delivery. They have to know how changes incorporated to external factors influence the operation and how changes in one aspect of the operating system influence other aspects.

Also, operations managers need to know how technological changes impact organization’s capability of delivery, and to incorporate their conclusions into strategic process (Peters, Waterman, 1982). Therefore, the heart of operations thinking includes the ability to think dynamically and systematically across time and space (Miller, 1998). Besides traditional tasks of operation management, new perspectives and objectives emerge connected with the emergence of new trends and developments of operations management, such as total quality management, shop floor control, global supply chain management, manufacturing planning software, and others.

Total quality management has become one of the most important developments of the operations management. The quest for higher level of products and services quality is caused by the globalization of markets, on the one hand, and increasing litigation over service or product failure. The relationship between quality and market share performance is doubtless. Those firms that fail to understand the issue of quality find themselves on the bottom of their industry hierarchy. A significant share of the responsibility for quality standards rests on the operations manager. Global supply chain management is another very important component of operations management. The world economy is becoming more global than ever. Looking for lower production costs, more flexibility and local risk reduction, companies are seeking to outsource and produce services and products on global scale (Heizer, 2004). Operation managers are responsible for fulfilling the task. Project management is yet another task of the operations management department. Operation managers bear responsibility for numerous projects which range from considerable capital projects to specific ones such as installation of new information system.

Effectively managing projects involves fulfillment and delivery them in timely manner and within the budget (Stevens, 2001). In a word, operations management is indispensable component of the organization, since it fulfills numerous important functions of the company. Operations manager handles daily running and functioning of the organization.

The implication of poor managerial performance for the collapse of Enron Corporation

Now it is necessary to find out and analyze whether operations management of Enron Corp performed all the functions mentioned above and what was the quality of their activity.

The Enron did have operations management department, which, according to their official source, fulfilled the following functions: setup accounts and notify utilities, agency agreement from customer, verify the format of invoice, setup invoice data transfer, test algorithms of invoice and file transfer to the customer, determine the reporting requirements of the customer (Enron Energy Services, 2000). As it is seen from the source, the functions of very operations management department are very limited. There are other management departments which perform the functions of operations management stated above: operations facility management, commodity management, energy asset management, financial operations, and capital management. Though, most of functions performed by these departments, according to the source, are purely executive and lack integration, systematic vision, responsibility, control and creative aspect. Besides limited scope of functions assigned to operations management in Enron Corporation, another important point concerns the quality of their performance and overall corporate culture and atmosphere created within corporation. As it was mentioned above, ideally, the functions of operations management include creating ethic values, integrity, competence and clear accountability within the organization. Enron’s management failed to comply with these tasks.

Read the full version of this article here.

Source by Anastasia Kurdina

Naked Yoga for Autofellatio and Autocunnilingus – Joining Ancient Practices With Modern Science

Naked Yoga is a form of erotic Yoga that originally implied that the participants would perform Yoga sans clothing. This type of Yoga was presented in a “class” structure, not unlike other forms of the art, where numerous people would perform their positions in the nude.

This artistic endeavor became most noticeable in the 1960s with the “flower power” movement; at this time, too, an interest in “naturism,” or nudist camps, also became increasing popular in the Western world.

This was the second time that Yogic practices became popular in the West. The first time was in the 1920s and 1930s and was of major interest and exploration to the occultists. Not so much for the exercise/stretching forms of the art, but more for occult-power enhancement and enlightenment through meditation. To this day, one of the best books on the subject is from Aleister Crowley entitled, Eight Lectures on Yoga, from 1939. It is an especially interesting book for the beginner, as it simplifies many of the concepts and procedures. For example, this is the only example I have seen, in book form, that acknowledges that people can use a chair for meditation. This approach is clearly helpful for men and women who have spinal problems which would shy them away from typical Yogic postures due to pain. Many of Crowley’s other manuscripts deal with other forms of this art form, too.

Now the third resurgence of these ancient practices has, once again, crept into the West. Places to practice Yoga seem to be popping up all over the place these days. Everything from Power-Yoga to Naked-Yoga to just about anything that strikes your interest. The “naked” form seems to have become more popular than ever before, with people all over the Western world taking part in these gatherings of self-expressive nudity, exercise, and relaxation.

This leads us to autofellatio and autocunnilingus, as they are inevitable extensions of Yogic practice. It’s doubtful that any Yogi has failed to ponder the possibility of self-sex through oral stimulation of his own penis (auto-fellatio) or oral stimulation of her own vulva (auto-cunnilingus). Nor have people who have witnessed these extensive, seemingly near-impossible, and highly exotic body positions, failed to wonder if these forms of auto-sexuality could, indeed, be performed.

The answer to the curious on-looker, is that these forms of stretches can certainly help men and women perform these intimate sexual acts. Not only that, but other technical applications, using modern-day physical therapeutics and understanding proper stretching techniques and procedures, can help people more than ever before accomplish these wondrous abilities. Thanks to modern science and ancient practices, people now have the opportunity to explore this form of self-gratification much easier than the generations before them.

Source by Kimi Kalfino

Anatomy of Foreclosure Fraud

Here is the simple anatomy of foreclosure fraud.

An individual would take out a loan in order to purchase a home. Unknown to the individual at the time, the bank would have already lined up a purchaser to buy the loan along with a bunch of other loans from the same time period.

The purchaser would enter into a "Pooling and Servicing Agreement" with a couple of other purchasers, which called for the creation of a Trust. One of the other purchasers in the Agreement would become the "trustee." The original lender was supposedly to deposit the mortgages into the trust. Often MERS was designated as the virtual warehouse for the mortgages.

This was where the problems began. At the time that the purchaser bought the mortgages from the original lender, it did not know where that particular loan was going to end up. So, although it paid money for the mortgage, often times the lender did not sign it over to the purchaser right away. Instead, they would wait to find out where the loan was going to go with the intent of signing it over later. This was because the mortgages often changed hands many times before the attempt to deposit it into the trust was made. So at the time the purchaser paid the money, they never actually got any loans. All they got was a spreadsheet with a list of mortgages on it.

This claimed in nothing actually being deposited into the trust. Ideally, they were to go back after the deposit was done and have the lender assign the loans to the Trustee for the benefit of the trust. The problem was, for various reasons, the assignments never got made, so the trusts were empty

If the trusts were empty, it means that the servicer collecting mortgage payments on behalf of the trust, had no right to collect.

It also means that the securities Mortgage Backed Securities backed by these trusts were useless as well, and that the people offering to sell them may face liability to the investors in those securities.

To cover up the failure to properly convey the mortgages, MERS and the Banks got a document mill to forge a backdated assignment or allonge, or produce a false affidavit claiming that a proper chain of title exists and that the foreclosing entity has the right to foreclose , even though they do not. This is where the foreclosure fraud comes in.
Many people feel that they have no options other than to go along with what the bank tells them to do. It is important to realize that in most cases, the bank is NOT on your side. There are far too many instances of people being led to believe the bank was "working with them" only to find that the foreclosure was proceeding anyway.
If you have received a Notice of Trustee's Sale, you must act quickly to protect your rights. You DO have rights, but what good are rights if you are not aware of them or how to protect them?

Source by Bob Jung

Source of Pool Problems – Biofilms

If you think your pool water is clean and sanitary just because it looks clear, think again. Yes, you may have shocked the water and added algaecide and even maintained a good chlorine, bromine biguanide (Soft Swim or Baquacil) level, but you’ve only controlled about 1% of the bacteria in your swimming pool! Yes, just 1%. Where’s the other 99%? On every pool surface that you can or can not see. And most of those places are virtually impossible to reach. What now?

The more we deal with swimming pools and pool problems, the more we realize that we’re dealing with or treating symptoms rather than the root cause of the cloudy water, algae, scale build up, etc. As I’ve noted in other articles, there are a plethora of reasons for cloudy water from poor water chemistry to poor circulation to improper cleaning habits to environmental causes. And typically, these causes combine to create the problem.

As we look for the root cause, we see more and more that there are real “problems” that are often undetected. What do we mean? Have you noticed that there is a regular build up of film on the pool liner, up and down the walls or in the corners? If you are a regular brusher, the problem may not be as noticeable. How about when you take the filter apart for normal maintenance or cleaning and you see a whitish film on the inside of the tank or on the skimmer weir or skimmer body?

All of those films or slimes are what we call biofilms. In biofilms live the other roughly 99% of all pool bacteria. The 1% that is in the water is classified as “planktonic”. Like plankton or algae, planktonic bacteria free-floats in the water. That is the bacteria that your chlorine, bromine or other sanitizer can “easily” kill. The 99% in the biofilm can be quite another story and long-term headache. There is much information about biofilm from institutions around the world to back up my information to you. Montana State University’s Center for Biofilm Engineering is one of our key sources.

Biofilms in swimming pools can and often do lead to cloudy water, algae blooms, scale build-up on the heater (prevents efficient heating), and even corrosion (certain biofilms can have a pH of about 1.0 – very acidic) of any metal surface of the pool system including heaters, filter parts, ladders, rails, etc.

First, what is a biofilm? A biofilm is a film or large quantity of bacteria that is living in and as a vast colony in the microscopic world. In the “big” world, you could call a coral reef a “biofilm.” A biofilm is self-perpetuating and difficult to remove. Worst of all, biofilm love virtually any surface, especially wet or damp. But beware, even after drying out, the biofilm will not necessarily be dead but simply dormant. Did we mention that biofilms are relatively resistant to chlorine, bromine or other sanitizers?

Second, how do biofilms form? As just mentioned, biofilms form on any surface. In your pool that means the liner or the pool walls, bottom, ladder rails, skimmer baskets, ladder treads, filter tank bodies, pump bodies and impellers, directional returns (eyeballs), heater plumbing, and especially the piping. There is a 5 steps process as to the formation of biofilms: Attachment, Colonization, Protection, Growth, and finally what I call Distribution.

Attachment is just that; the bacteria attaches to the surface. It wants a place to call home and grow. Bacteria want to be in relationships, so that find a nice surface to settle down and join up with a few of their closest friends.

After attaching to the pool surface with their friends, colonization takes place as bacteria multiply and divide, growing in number. According to studies, it is at this crucial point that this attachment is “irreversible.” The bacteria colony is there to stay unless purposefully removed. This stage is typically accomplished in a matter of minutes or hours at most.

In the Protection stage, the bacteria colony or biofilm begins protecting itself against invasion. Invasion from environmental factors, “lethal” chemicals (such as chlorine or bromine), predators, anything that want to destroy it. In technical terms, the bacteria begins to excrete a protective coating called an “exopolysaccharide” film. The film is sticky or slimy and very hearty. Now the biofilm is ready to experience explosive growth.

Like a coral reef, the biofilm gets bigger and tougher. Super colonies of biofilm are actually absorbing certain chemicals that were meant to destroy them. The chlorine or bromine may kill the out layers of the colony that are more susceptible to chlorine or bromine, but as the chlorine or bromine is exhausted, the lower, stronger, better protected layers are still living and multiplying. The good news is that as the biofilm colony increases in size, it gets more “unwieldy” and begins to break apart. That’s also the bad news.

Now we come full circle and come to Distribution where these broken parts begin to attach to other surfaces or different parts of the same surface. And the cycle begins anew.

By the way, biofilms are everywhere. Pools, spas, bathrooms, kitchens, the funky look to your patio furniture, on your teeth (plaque is a biofilm), wherever there is a surface that can be damp. You can view a video on swimming pool biofilms at our blog by clicking on the link below.

Keep in mind that all biofilms are not bad. How? Some are being used in industrial situations to plug microfissures. But in pools ans spas, we don’t want them.

Source by Ronald Parrs